Harun Mustafa, MSc ETH UZH in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Luke: "You want the impossible... I don't... I don't believe it!" — Yoda: "That is why you fail."
- harun.mustafa@ inf.ethz.ch
- +41 43 254 0225
Biomedical Informatics Group
SHM 26 B 5
- SHM 26 B 5
My main research interests are in the development of data structures and algorithms to allow for efficient searching and annotation of high-throughput genome and metagenome sequencing data.
I completed my honours B.Sc. with high distinction at the University of Toronto, dual majoring in computational biology and mathematics. Under the supervision of Michael Brudno, I developed methods for assembling the sequences of novel Alu insertions detected in second-generation sequencing data. I completed my M.Sc. in computational biology at the ETH Zürich, where I developed a classification method for determining internal sites in proteins permissive to tag insertion under the joint supervision of Sven Panke and Jörg Stelling. I joined the Biomedical Informatics Group in 2017 as a Ph.D. student.
Abstract Read mapping is a fundamental step in many genomics applications. It is used to identify potential matches and differences between fragments (called reads) of a sequenced genome and an already known genome (called a reference genome). Read mapping is costly because it needs to perform approximate string matching (ASM) on large amounts of data. To address the computational challenges in genome analysis, many prior works propose various approaches such as accurate filters that select the reads within a dataset of genomic reads (called a read set) that must undergo expensive computation, efficient heuristics, and hardware acceleration. While effective at reducing the amount of expensive computation, all such approaches still require the costly movement of a large amount of data from storage to the rest of the system, which can significantly lower the end-to-end performance of read mapping in conventional and emerging genomics systems. We propose GenStore, the first in-storage processing system designed for genome sequence analysis that greatly reduces both data movement and computational overheads of genome sequence analysis by exploiting low-cost and accurate in-storage filters. GenStore leverages hardware/software co-design to address the challenges of in-storage processing, supporting reads with 1) different properties such as read lengths and error rates, which highly depend on the sequencing technology, and 2) different degrees of genetic variation compared to the reference genome, which highly depends on the genomes that are being compared. Through rigorous analysis of read mapping processes of reads with different properties and degrees of genetic variation, we meticulously design low-cost hardware accelerators and data/computation flows inside a NAND flash-based solid-state drive (SSD). Our evaluation using a wide range of real genomic datasets shows that GenStore, when implemented in three modern NAND flash-based SSDs, significantly improves the read mapping performance of state-of-the-art software (hardware) baselines by 2.07-6.05× (1.52-3.32×) for read sets with high similarity to the reference genome and 1.45-33.63× (2.70-19.2×) for read sets with low similarity to the reference genome.
Authors Nika Mansouri Ghiasi, Jisung Park, Harun Mustafa, Jeremie Kim, Ataberk Olgun, Arvid Gollwitzer, Damla Senol Cali, Can Firtina, Haiyu Mao, Nour Almadhoun Alserr, Rachata Ausavarungnirun, Nandita Vijaykumar, Mohammed Alser, Onur Mutlu
Submitted ASPLOS 2022
Abstract High-throughput sequencing data is rapidly accumulating in public repositories. Making this resource accessible for interactive analysis at scale requires efficient approaches for its storage and indexing. There have recently been remarkable advances in solving the experiment discovery problem and building compressed representations of annotated de Bruijn graphs where k-mer sets can be efficiently indexed and interactively queried. However, approaches for representing and retrieving other quantitative attributes such as gene expression or genome positions in a general manner have yet to be developed. In this work, we propose the concept of Counting de Bruijn graphs generalizing the notion of annotated (or colored) de Bruijn graphs. Counting de Bruijn graphs supplement each node-label relation with one or many attributes (e.g., a k-mer count or its positions in genome). To represent them, we first observe that many schemes for the representation of compressed binary matrices already support the rank operation on the columns or rows, which can be used to define an inherent indexing of any additional quantitative attributes. Based on this property, we generalize these schemes and introduce a new approach for representing non-binary sparse matrices in compressed data structures. Finally, we notice that relation attributes are often easily predictable from a node’s local neighborhood in the graph. Notable examples are genome positions shifting by 1 for neighboring nodes in the graph, or expression levels that are often shared across neighbors. We exploit this regularity of graph annotations and apply an invertible delta-like coding to achieve better compression. We show that Counting de Bruijn graphs index k-mer counts from 2,652 human RNA-Seq read sets in representations over 8-fold smaller and yet faster to query compared to state-of-the-art bioinformatics tools. Furthermore, Counting de Bruijn graphs with positional annotations losslessly represent entire reads in indexes on average 27% smaller than the input compressed with gzip -9 for human Illumina RNA-Seq and 57% smaller for PacBio HiFi sequencing of viral samples. A complete joint searchable index of all viral PacBio SMRT reads from NCBI’s SRA (152,884 read sets, 875 Gbp) comprises only 178 GB. Finally, on the full RefSeq collection, they generate a lossless and fully queryable index that is 4.4-fold smaller compared to the MegaBLAST index. The techniques proposed in this work naturally complement existing methods and tools employing de Bruijn graphs and significantly broaden their applicability: from indexing k-mer counts and genome positions to implementing novel sequence alignment algorithms on top of highly compressed and fully searchable graph-based sequence indexes.
Authors Mikhail Karasikov, Harun Mustafa, Gunnar Rätsch, André Kahles
Submitted RECOMB 2022
Abstract We present a global atlas of 4,728 metagenomic samples from mass-transit systems in 60 cities over 3 years, representing the first systematic, worldwide catalog of the urban microbial ecosystem. This atlas provides an annotated, geospatial profile of microbial strains, functional characteristics, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) markers, and genetic elements, including 10,928 viruses, 1,302 bacteria, 2 archaea, and 838,532 CRISPR arrays not found in reference databases. We identified 4,246 known species of urban microorganisms and a consistent set of 31 species found in 97% of samples that were distinct from human commensal organisms. Profiles of AMR genes varied widely in type and density across cities. Cities showed distinct microbial taxonomic signatures that were driven by climate and geographic differences. These results constitute a high-resolution global metagenomic atlas that enables discovery of organisms and genes, highlights potential public health and forensic applications, and provides a culture-independent view of AMR burden in cities.
Authors David Danko, Daniela Bezdan, Evan E. Afshin, Sofia Ahsanuddin, Chandrima Bhattacharya, Daniel J. Butler, Kern Rei Chng, Daisy Donnellan, Jochen Hecht, Katelyn Jackson, Katerina Kuchin, Mikhail Karasikov, Abigail Lyons, Lauren Mak, Dmitry Meleshko, Harun Mustafa, Beth Mutai, Russell Y. Neches, Amanda Ng, Olga Nikolayeva, Tatyana Nikolayeva, Eileen Png, Krista A. Ryon, Jorge L. Sanchez, Heba Shaaban, Maria A. Sierra, Dominique Thomas, Ben Young, Omar O. Abudayyeh, Josue Alicea, Malay Bhattacharyya, Ran Blekhman, Eduardo Castro-Nallar, Ana M. Cañas, Aspassia D. Chatziefthimiou, Robert W. Crawford, Francesca De Filippis, Youping Deng, Christelle Desnues, Emmanuel Dias-Neto, Marius Dybwad, Eran Elhaik, Danilo Ercolini, Alina Frolova, Dennis Gankin, Jonathan S. Gootenberg, Alexandra B. Graf, David C. Green, Iman Hajirasouliha, Jaden J.A. Hastings, Mark Hernandez, Gregorio Iraola, Soojin Jang, Andre Kahles, Frank J. Kelly, Kaymisha Knights, Nikos C. Kyrpides, Paweł P. Łabaj, Patrick K.H. Lee, Marcus H.Y. Leung, Per O. Ljungdahl, Gabriella Mason-Buck, Ken McGrath, Cem Meydan, Emmanuel F. Mongodin, Milton Ozorio Moraes, Niranjan Nagarajan, Marina Nieto-Caballero, Houtan Noushmehr, Manuela Oliveira, Stephan Ossowski, Olayinka O. Osuolale, Orhan Özcan, David Paez-Espino, Nicolás Rascovan, Hugues Richard, Gunnar Rätsch, Lynn M. Schriml, Torsten Semmler, Osman U. Sezerman, Leming Shi, Tieliu Shi, Rania Siam, Le Huu Song, Haruo Suzuki, Denise Syndercombe Court, Scott W. Tighe, Xinzhao Tong, Klas I. Udekwu, Juan A. Ugalde, Brandon Valentine, Dimitar I. Vassilev, Elena M. Vayndorf, Thirumalaisamy P. Velavan, Jun Wu, María M. Zambrano, Jifeng Zhu, Sibo Zhu, Christopher E. Mason, The International MetaSUB Consortium
Abstract Since the amount of published biological sequencing data is growing exponentially, efficient methods for storing and indexing this data are more needed than ever to truly benefit from this invaluable resource for biomedical research. Labeled de Bruijn graphs are a frequently-used approach for representing large sets of sequencing data. While significant progress has been made to succinctly represent the graph itself, efficient methods for storing labels on such graphs are still rapidly evolving. In this paper, we present RowDiff, a new technique for compacting graph labels by leveraging expected similarities in annotations of vertices adjacent in the graph. RowDiff can be constructed in linear time relative to the number of vertices and labels in the graph, and in space proportional to the graph size. In addition, construction can be efficiently parallelized and distributed, making the technique applicable to graphs with trillions of nodes. RowDiff can be viewed as an intermediary sparsification step of the original annotation matrix and can thus naturally be combined with existing generic schemes for compressed binary matrices. Experiments on 10,000 RNA-seq datasets show that RowDiff combined with Multi-BRWT results in a 30% reduction in annotation footprint over Mantis-MST, the previously known most compact annotation representation. Experiments on the sparser Fungi subset of the RefSeq collection show that applying RowDiff sparsification reduces the size of individual annotation columns stored as compressed bit vectors by an average factor of 42. When combining RowDiff with a Multi-BRWT representation, the resulting annotation is 26 times smaller than Mantis-MST.
Authors Daniel Danciu, Mikhail Karasikov, Harun Mustafa, André Kahles, Gunnar Rätsch
Submitted ISMB/ECCB 2021
Abstract The amount of biological sequencing data available in public repositories is growing exponentially, forming an invaluable biomedical research resource. Yet, making all this sequencing data searchable and easily accessible to life science and data science researchers is an unsolved problem. We present MetaGraph, a versatile framework for the scalable analysis of extensive sequence repositories. MetaGraph efficiently indexes vast collections of sequences to enable fast search and comprehensive analysis. A wide range of underlying data structures offer different practically relevant trade-offs between the space taken by the index and its query performance. MetaGraph provides a flexible methodological framework allowing for index construction to be scaled from consumer laptops to distribution onto a cloud compute cluster for processing terabases to petabases of input data. Achieving compression ratios of up to 1,000-fold over the already compressed raw input data, MetaGraph can represent the content of large sequencing archives in the working memory of a single compute server. We demonstrate our framework’s scalability by indexing over 1.4 million whole genome sequencing (WGS) records from NCBI’s Sequence Read Archive, representing a total input of more than three petabases. Besides demonstrating the utility of MetaGraph indexes on key applications, such as experiment discovery, sequence alignment, error correction, and differential assembly, we make a wide range of indexes available as a community resource, including those over 450,000 microbial WGS records, more than 110,000 fungi WGS records, and more than 20,000 whole metagenome sequencing records. A subset of these indexes is made available online for interactive queries. All indexes created from public data comprising in total more than 1 million records are available for download or usage in the cloud. As an example of our indexes’ integrative analysis capabilities, we introduce the concept of differential assembly, which allows for the extraction of sequences present in a foreground set of samples but absent in a given background set. We apply this technique to differentially assemble contigs to identify pathogenic agents transfected via human kidney transplants. In a second example, we indexed more than 20,000 human RNA-Seq records from the TCGA and GTEx cohorts and use them to extract transcriptome features that are hard to characterize using a classical linear reference. We discovered over 200 trans-splicing events in GTEx and found broad evidence for tissue-specific non-A-to-I RNA-editing in GTEx and TCGA.
Authors Mikhail Karasikov, Harun Mustafa, Daniel Danciu, Marc Zimmermann, Christopher Barber, Gunnar Rätsch, André Kahles
Abstract Jaccard Similarity index is an important measure of the overlap of two sets, widely used in machine learning, computational genomics, information retrieval, and many other areas. However, little efforts have been made to develop a scalable and high-performance scheme for computing the Jaccard Similarity for today's large data sets. To address this issue, we design and implement SimilarityAtScale, the first communicationefficient distributed algorithm for computing the Jaccard Similarity. The key idea is to express the problem algebraically, as a sequence of matrix operations, and implement these operations with communication-avoiding distributed routines to minimize the amount of transferred data and ensure both high scalability and low latency. We then apply our algorithm to the problem of obtaining distances between whole-genome sequencing samples, a key part of modern metagenomics analysis and an evergrowing need due to the increasing availability of high-throughput DNA sequencing data. The resulting scheme is the first to enable accurate Jaccard distance derivations for massive datasets, using large-scale distributed-memory systems. We package our routines in a tool, called GenomeAtScale, that combines the proposed algorithm with tools for processing input sequences. Our evaluation on real data illustrates that one can use GenomeAtScale to effectively employ tens of thousands of processors to reach new frontiers in large-scale genomic and metagenomic analysis. While GenomeAtScale can be used to foster DNA research, the more general underlying SimilarityAtScale algorithm may be used for high-performance distributed similarity computations in other data analytics application domains.
Authors Maciej Besta, Raghavendra Kanakagiri, Harun Mustafa, Mikhail Karasikov, Gunnar Rätsch, Torsten Hoefler, Edgar Solomonik
Submitted IPDPS 2020
Abstract We present an algorithm for the optimal alignment of sequences to genome graphs. It works by phrasing the edit distance minimization task as finding a shortest path on an implicit alignment graph. To find a shortest path, we instantiate the A⋆ paradigm with a novel domain-specific heuristic function that accounts for the upcoming sub-sequence in the query to be aligned, resulting in a provably optimal alignment algorithm called AStarix. Experimental evaluation of AStarix shows that it is 1–2 orders of magnitude faster than state-of-the-art optimal algorithms on the task of aligning Illumina reads to reference genome graphs. Implementations and evaluations are available at https://github.com/eth-sri/astarix.
Authors Pesho Ivanov, Benjamin Bichsel, Harun Mustafa, André Kahles, Gunnar Rätsch, Martin Vechev
Submitted RECOMB 2020
Abstract High-throughput DNA sequencing data are accumulating in public repositories, and efficient approaches for storing and indexing such data are in high demand. In recent research, several graph data structures have been proposed to represent large sets of sequencing data and to allow for efficient querying of sequences. In particular, the concept of labeled de Bruijn graphs has been explored by several groups. Although there has been good progress toward representing the sequence graph in small space, methods for storing a set of labels on top of such graphs are still not sufficiently explored. It is also currently not clear how characteristics of the input data, such as the sparsity and correlations of labels, can help to inform the choice of method to compress the graph labeling. In this study, we present a new compression approach, Multi-binary relation wavelet tree (BRWT), which is adaptive to different kinds of input data. We show an up to 29% improvement in compression performance over the basic BRWT method, and up to a 68% improvement over the current state-of-the-art for de Bruijn graph label compression. To put our results into perspective, we present a systematic analysis of five different state-of-the-art annotation compression schemes, evaluate key metrics on both artificial and real-world data, and discuss how different data characteristics influence the compression performance. We show that the improvements of our new method can be robustly reproduced for different representative real-world data sets.
Authors Mikhail Karasikov, Harun Mustafa, Amir Joudaki, Sara Javadzadeh-No, Gunnar Rätsch, André Kahles
Submitted Journal of Computational Biology
Abstract Metagenomic studies have increasingly utilized sequencing technologies in order to analyze DNA fragments found in environmental samples.One important step in this analysis is the taxonomic classification of the DNA fragments. Conventional read classification methods require large databases and vast amounts of memory to run, with recent deep learning methods suffering from very large model sizes. We therefore aim to develop a more memory-efficient technique for taxonomic classification. A task of particular interest is abundance estimation in metagenomic samples. Current attempts rely on classifying single DNA reads independently from each other and are therefore agnostic to co-occurence patterns between taxa. In this work, we also attempt to take these patterns into account. We develop a novel memory-efficient read classification technique, combining deep learning and locality-sensitive hashing. We show that this approach outperforms conventional mapping-based and other deep learning methods for single-read taxonomic classification when restricting all methods to a fixed memory footprint. Moreover, we formulate the task of abundance estimation as a Multiple Instance Learning (MIL) problem and we extend current deep learning architectures with two different types of permutation-invariant MIL pooling layers: a) deepsets and b) attention-based pooling. We illustrate that our architectures can exploit the co-occurrence of species in metagenomic read sets and outperform the single-read architectures in predicting the distribution over taxa at higher taxonomic ranks.
Authors Andreas Georgiou, Vincent Fortuin, Harun Mustafa, Gunnar Rätsch
Submitted arXiv Preprints
Abstract High-throughput DNA sequencing data is accumulating in public repositories, and efficient approaches for storing and indexing such data are in high demand. In recent research, several graph data structures have been proposed to represent large sets of sequencing data and to allow for efficient querying of sequences. In particular, the concept of labeled de Bruijn graphs has been explored by several groups. While there has been good progress towards representing the sequence graph in small space, methods for storing a set of labels on top of such graphs are still not sufficiently explored. It is also currently not clear how characteristics of the input data, such as the sparsity and correlations of labels, can help to inform the choice of method to compress the graph labeling. In this work, we present a new compression approach, Multi-BRWT, which is adaptive to different kinds of input data. We show an up to 29% improvement in compression performance over the basic BRWT method, and up to a 68% improvement over the current state-of-the-art for de Bruijn graph label compression. To put our results into perspective, we present a systematic analysis of five different state-of-the-art annotation compression schemes, evaluate key metrics on both artificial and real-world data and discuss how different data characteristics influence the compression performance. We show that the improvements of our new method can be robustly reproduced for different representative real-world datasets.
Authors Mikhail Karasikov, Harun Mustafa, Amir Joudaki, Sara Javadzadeh-No, Gunnar Rätsch, Andre Kahles
Submitted RECOMB 2019
Abstract Motivation: Technological advancements in high-throughput DNA sequencing have led to an exponential growth of sequencing data being produced and stored as a byproduct of biomedical research. Despite its public availability, a majority of this data remains hard to query for the research community due to a lack of efficient data representation and indexing solutions. One of the available techniques to represent read data is a condensed form as an assembly graph. Such a representation contains all sequence information but does not store contextual information and metadata. Results: We present two new approaches for a compressed representation of a graph coloring: a lossless compression scheme based on a novel application of wavelet tries as well as a highly accurate lossy compression based on a set of Bloom filters. Both strategies retain a coloring even when adding to the underlying graph topology. We present construction and merge procedures for both methods and evaluate their performance on a wide range of different datasets. By dropping the requirement of a fully lossless compression and using the topological information of the underlying graph, we can reduce memory requirements by up to three orders of magnitude. Representing individual colors as independently stored modules, our approaches can be efficiently parallelized and provide strategies for dynamic use. These properties allow for an easy upscaling to the problem sizes common to the biomedical domain. Availability: We provide prototype implementations in C++, summaries of our experiments as well as links to all datasets publicly at https://github.com/ratschlab/graph_annotation.
Authors Harun Mustafa, Ingo Schilken, Mikhail Karasikov, Carsten Eickhoff, Gunnar Rätsch, Andre Kahles
Abstract Technological advancements in high throughput DNA sequencing have led to an exponential growth of sequencing data being produced and stored as a byproduct of biomedical research. Despite its public availability, a majority of this data remains inaccessible to the research com- munity through a lack efficient data representation and indexing solutions. One of the available techniques to represent read data on a more abstract level is its transformation into an assem- bly graph. Although the sequence information is now accessible, any contextual annotation and metadata is lost. We present a new approach for a compressed representation of a graph coloring based on a set of Bloom filters. By dropping the requirement of a fully lossless compression and using the topological information of the underlying graph to decide on false positives, we can reduce the memory requirements for a given set of colors per edge by three orders of magnitude. As insertion and query on a Bloom filter are constant time operations, the complexity to compress and decompress an edge color is linear in the number of color bits. Representing individual colors as independent filters, our approach is fully dynamic and can be easily parallelized. These properties allow for an easy upscaling to the problem sizes common in the biomedical domain. A prototype implementation of our method is available in Java.
Authors Ingo Schilken, Harun Mustafa, Gunnar Rätsch, Carsten Eickhoff, Andre Kahles
Abstract Much of the DNA and RNA sequencing data available is in the form of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) reads and is currently unindexed by established sequence search databases. Recent succinct data structures for indexing both reference sequences and HTS data, along with associated metadata, have been based on either hashing or graph models, but many of these structures are static in nature, and thus, not well-suited as backends for dynamic databases. We propose a parallel construction method for and novel application of the wavelet trie as a dynamic data structure for compressing and indexing graph metadata. By developing an algorithm for merging wavelet tries, we are able to construct large tries in parallel by merging smaller tries constructed concurrently from batches of data. When compared against general compression algorithms and those developed specifically for graph colors (VARI and Rainbowfish), our method achieves compression ratios superior to gzip and VARI, converging to compression ratios of 6.5% to 2% on data sets constructed from over 600 virus genomes. While marginally worse than compression by bzip2 or Rainbowfish, this structure allows for both fast extension and query. We also found that additionally encoding graph topology metadata improved compression ratios, particularly on data sets consisting of several mutually-exclusive reference genomes. It was also observed that the compression ratio of wavelet tries grew sublinearly with the density of the annotation matrices. This work is a significant step towards implementing a dynamic data structure for indexing large annotated sequence data sets that supports fast query and update operations. At the time of writing, no established standard tool has filled this niche.
Authors Harun Mustafa, Andre Kahles, Mikhail Karasikov, Gunnar Raetsch
Abstract Background Internal tagging of proteins by inserting small functional peptides into surface accessible permissive sites has proven to be an indispensable tool for basic and applied science. Permissive sites are typically identified by transposon mutagenesis on a case-by-case basis, limiting scalability and their exploitation as a system-wide protein engineering tool. Methods We developed an apporach for predicting permissive stretches (PSs) in proteins based on the identification of length-variable regions (regions containing indels) in homologous proteins. Results We verify that a protein's primary structure information alone is sufficient to identify PSs. Identified PSs are predicted to be predominantly surface accessible; hence, the position of inserted peptides is likely suitable for diverse applications. We demonstrate the viability of this approach by inserting a Tobacco etch virus protease recognition site (TEV-tag) into several PSs in a wide range of proteins, from small monomeric enzymes (adenylate kinase) to large multi-subunit molecular machines (ATP synthase) and verify their functionality after insertion. We apply this method to engineer conditional protein knockdowns directly in the Escherichia coli chromosome and generate a cell-free platform with enhanced nucleotide stability. Conclusions Functional internally tagged proteins can be rationally designed and directly chromosomally implemented. Critical for the successful design of protein knockdowns was the incorporation of surface accessibility and secondary structure predictions, as well as the design of an improved TEV-tag that enables efficient hydrolysis when inserted into the middle of a protein. This versatile and portable approach can likely be adapted for other applications, and broadly adopted. We provide guidelines for the design of internally tagged proteins in order to empower scientists with little or no protein engineering expertise to internally tag their target proteins.
Authors Sabine Oesterle, Tania Michelle Roberts, Lukas Andreas Widmer, Harun Mustafa, Sven Panke, Sonja Billerbeck
Submitted BMC Biology
Abstract Repetitive elements generally, and Alu inserts specifically are a large contributor to the recent evolution of the human genome. By assembling the sequences of novel Alu inserts using their respective subfamily consensus sequences as references, we found an exponential decay in the Alu subfamily call enrichment with increased number of sequence variants (Pearson correlation r=−0.68, p<0.0039). By mapping the sequences of these inserts to a human reference genome, we infer the reference Alu sources of a subset of the novel Alus, of which 85% were previously shown to be active. We also evaluate relationships between the loci of the novel inserts and their inferred sources.
Authors Harun Mustafa, Matei David, Michael Brudno
Submitted Mobile Genetic Elements
Abstract High-throughput sequencing technologies have allowed for the cataloguing of variation in personal human genomes. In this manuscript, we present alu-detect, a tool that combines read-pair and split-read information to detect novel Alus and their precise breakpoints directly from either whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing data while also identifying insertions directly in the vicinity of existing Alus. To set the parameters of our method, we use simulation of a faux reference, which allows us to compute the precision and recall of various parameter settings using real sequencing data. Applying our method to 100 bp paired Illumina data from seven individuals, including two trios, we detected on average 1519 novel Alus per sample. Based on the faux-reference simulation, we estimate that our method has 97% precision and 85% recall. We identify 808 novel Alus not previously described in other studies. We also demonstrate the use of alu-detect to study the local sequence and global location preferences for novel Alu insertions.
Authors Matei David, Harun Mustafa, Michael Brudno
Submitted Nucleic Acids Research